Asma y broncoconstricción inducida por ejercicio en el deportista de resistencia: actualización en diagnóstico y tratamiento

Autores/as

  • Juan M. Guzmán H. MD Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Mayor, Santiago, Chile.
  • Ignacio Solar A., MD Servicio medicina deportiva, Unidad de ciencias aplicadas al deporte, IND/MINDEP, Chile.
  • Patricia Fernández V., MD Instituto Nacional del Tórax, Santiago, Chile.
  • Gino Fuentes L. MD Clínica BUPA, Centro Respiratório Adulto, Santiago, Chile.
  • Sandra Mahecha M., MD Centro de Investigación en Medicina, Ejercicio, Deporte y Salud, Clínica MEDS. Santiago, Chile.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.59856/arch.soc.chil.med.deporte.v66i1.7

Palabras clave:

asma, atleta, broncoconstricción inducida por ejercicio, deporte de resistencia, diagnóstico, tratamiento

Resumen

Introducción: Los atletas de resistencia tienen mayor prevalencia de asma y broncoconstricción inducida por ejercicio sin asma (BIEsa) que la población general. De hecho, representan los trastornos crónicos más comunes en este grupo.

Objetivo: El objetivo de esta revisión narrativa es describir el estado actual del diagnóstico y tratamiento de asma y BIEsa en deportistas de resistencia.

Metodología: La búsqueda de artículos fue realizada en las bases PubMed, LILACs y Cochrane desde septiembre 2015 hasta septiembre de 2020.

Resultados: La presentación clínica de estas entidades es muy variable, desde disminución del rendimiento hasta un cuadro clásico de obstrucción bronquial. Para el diagnóstico es fundamental, primero confirmar o descartar asma, y luego realizar pruebas de función pulmonar dirigidas a confirmar o descartar BIEsa. Para la terapia farmacológica se recomienda el uso regular de corticoesteroides inhalados y evitar los agonistas β2 de acción corta como monoterapia. En deportistas sujetos a control de dopaje, el terapeuta y el equipo técnico deben considerar las regulaciones de la Agencia Mundial Antidopaje.

Conclusión: Es fundamental buscar activamente estas enfermedades ya que suelen ser subdiagnosticadas y subtratadas, lo que impacta negativamente en el rendimiento y salud de los atletas de resistencia.

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12-08-2021

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Asma y broncoconstricción inducida por ejercicio en el deportista de resistencia: actualización en diagnóstico y tratamiento. Revista Archivos SOCHMEDEP [Internet]. 2021 Aug. 12 [cited 2024 Jun. 17];66(1):21-37. Available from: https://revistasochmedep.cl/index.php/Revista/article/view/7

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