¿Los niveles de Testosterona y Cortisol influyen en el rendimiento en el rugby? Una mirada al rugby sevens.


  • Pedro Zúñiga-Vergara. MSc. Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de medicina, Universidad Finis terrae, Chile.
  • Mauricio Castro S. PhD. Escuela de Kinesiología, Facultad de medicina, Universidad Finis terrae, Chile.



Palabras clave:

Testosterona, cortisol, ratio testosterona/cortisol, rugby, rendimiento


Introducción: El Rugby 7 (R7) es una rama del Rugby Unión (RU) y se caracteriza principalmente por ser un deporte de oposición con períodos de juego intensos y de corta duración, por lo tanto, los componentes psicológicos y fisiológicos juegan un rol en el rendimiento. En el R7, los deportistas compiten varias veces durante un mismo día, permitiendo la acumulación de fatiga. Esta acumulación de fatiga se puede explicar principalmente por la intensidad del juego y el número de colisiones a alta intensidad provocando perturbaciones a nivel muscular, endocrino y del sistema inmune. Sin embargo, a la fecha no existen trabajos que integren las respuestas fisiológicas como, por ejemplo, las respuestas hormonales de los jugadores a dichas demandas.

Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la literatura científica en relación al efecto de las hormonas T, C y el Ratio T/C en el rendimiento deportivo en el R7.

Metodología: Revisión narrativa de la literatuta, se realizó una búsqueda durante los meses de abril a noviembre del 2021 en 4 bases de datos (Pubmed/Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus (Elsevier) y Scielo). Después de analizar 335 textos se consideró su utilidad y relevacia para la inclusión a esta revisión. 11 Estudios cumplierón con los criterios de inclusión. Resultados: Los trabajos incluidos asocián la relación hormonal con el rendimiento deportivo en el RU y R7. Se destaca la relación grande (r=0,80) de la T con el rendimiento deportivo en el RU.

Conclusión: Según los estudios analizados se puede observar la existencia de asociaciones entre los niveles hormonales de T y C con el rendimiento en deportistas de RU.


Mazzoccoli G, Pazienza V, Vinciguerra M. Clock Genes and Clock-Controlled Genes in the Regulation of Metabolic Rhythms. Chronobiol Int. 2012;29(3):227–51.

Schally AV, Arimura A, Kastin AJ. Hypothalamic Regulatory Hormones. Science. 1973;179(4071):341–50.

Taylor MK, Kviatkovsky SA, Hernández LM, Sargent P, Segal S, Granger DA. Anabolic hormone profiles in elite military men. Steroids. 2016;110:41–8.

Haupt S, Eckstein ML, Wolf A, Zimmer RT, Wachsmuth NB, Moser O. Eat, Train, Sleep—Retreat? Hormonal Interactions of Intermittent Fasting, Exercise and Circadian Rhythm. Biomol. 2021;11(4):516.

Luigi LD, Romanelli F, Sgrò P, Lenzi A. Andrological aspects of physical exercise and sport medicine. Endocrine. 2012;42(2):278–84.

Vingren JL, Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA, Anderson JM, Volek JS, Maresh CM. Testosterone Physiology in Resistance Exercise and Training. Sports Med. 2010;40(12):1037–53.

Kraemer WJ, Ratamess NA. Hormonal Responses and Adaptations to Resistance Exercise and Training. Sports Med. 2005;35(4):339–61.

MUNCK A, GUYRE PM, HOLBROOK NJ. Physiological Functions of Glucocorticoids in Stress and Their Relation to Pharmacological Actions*. Endocr Rev. 1984;5(1):25–44.

Nagaya N, Herrera AA. Effects of testosterone on synaptic efficacy at neuromuscular junctions in a sexually dimorphic muscle of male frogs. J Physiology. 1995;483(1):141–53.

Fahrner C, Hackney A. Effects of Endurance Exercise on Free Testosterone Concentration and the Binding Affinity of Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG). Int J Sports Med. 1998;19(01):12–5.

MacKelvie KJ, Taunton JE, McKay HA, Khan KM. Bone mineral density and serum testosterone in chronically trained, high mileage 40–55 year old male runners. Brit J Sport Med. 2000;34(4):273.

Bricout V-A, Serrurier BD, Bigard AX, Guezennec CY. Effects of hindlimb suspension and androgen treatment on testosterone receptors in rat skeletal muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol O. 1999;79(5):443–8.

Bamman MM, Shipp JR, Jiang J, Gower BA, Hunter GR, Goodman A, et al. Mechanical load increases muscle IGF-I and androgen receptor mRNA concentrations in humans. Am J Physiol-endoc M. 2001;280(3):E383–90.

Friedl KE, Dettori JR, Hannan CJ, Patience TH, Plymate SR. Comparison of the effects of high dose testosterone and 19-nortestosterone to a replacement dose of testosterone on strength and body composition in normal men. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biology. 1991;40(4–6):607-IN6.

HÄkkinen K, Pakarinen A, Alén M, Komi PV. Serum hormones during prolonged training of neuromuscular performance. Eur J Appl Physiol O. 1985;53(4):287–93.

Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A. Acute hormonal responses to two different fatiguing heavy-resistance protocols in male athletes. J Appl Physiol. 1993;74(2):882–7.

Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Maresh CM, VanHeest JL, Sharman MJ, et al. Androgen receptor content following heavy resistance exercise in men. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biology. 2005;93(1):35–42.

Duclos M, Minkhar M, Sarrieau A, Bonnemaison D, Manier G, Mormede P. Reversibility of endurance training‐induced changes on glucocorticoid sensitivity of monocytes by an acute exercise. Clin Endocrinol. 1999;51(6):749–56.

Duclos M, Gouarne C, Bonnemaison D. Acute and chronic effects of exercise on tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. J Appl Physiol. 2003;94(3):869–75.

Cadegiani FA, Kater CE. Hormonal aspects of overtraining syndrome: a systematic review. Bmc Sports Sci Medicine Rehabilitation. 2017;9(1):14.

Suarez-Arrones L, Arenas C, López G, Requena B, Terrill O, Mendez-Villanueva A. Positional Differences in Match Running Performance and Physical Collisions in Men Rugby Sevens. Int J Sport Physiol. 2014;9(2):316–23.

Couderc A, Thomas C, Lacome M, Piscione J, Robineau J, Delfour-Peyrethon R, et al. Movement Patterns and Metabolic Responses During an International Rugby Sevens Tournament. Int J Sport Physiol. 2017;12(7):901–7.

Ross A, Gill ND, Cronin JB. Comparison of the Anthropometric and Physical Characteristics of International and Provincial Rugby Sevens Players. Int J Sport Physiol. 2015;10(6):780–5.

Clarke AC, Anson JM, Pyne DB. Game movement demands and physical profiles of junior, senior and elite male and female rugby sevens players. J Sport Sci. 2016;35(8):1–7.

Higham DG, Pyne DB, Anson JM, Eddy A. Physiological, Anthropometric, and Performance Characteristics of Rugby Sevens Players. Int J Sport Physiol. 2013;8(1):19–27.

Suarez-Arrones LJ, Nuñez FJ, Portillo J, Mendez-Villanueva A. Running Demands and Heart Rate Responses in Men Rugby Sevens. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(11):3155–9.

Ross A, Gill N, Cronin J. The match demands of international rugby sevens. J Sport Sci. 2015;33(10):1035–41.

Higham DG, Pyne DB, Anson JM, Hopkins WG, Eddy A. Comparison of Activity Profiles and Physiological Demands Between International Rugby Sevens Matches and Training. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(5):1287.

Ball S, Halaki M, Orr R. Movement Demands of Rugby Sevens in Men and Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(12):3475–90.

Bermon S, Garnier PY, Hirschberg AL, Robinson N, Giraud S, Nicoli R, et al. Serum Androgen Levels in Elite Female Athletes. J Clin Endocrinol Metabolism. 2014;99(11):4328–35.

Higham DG, Pyne DB, Anson JM, Eddy A. Movement patterns in rugby sevens: Effects of tournament level, fatigue and substitute players. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(3):277–82.

Rienzi E, Reilly T, Malkin C. Investigation of anthropometric and work-rate profiles of Rugby Sevens players. J Sports Medicine Phys Fit. 1999;39(2):160–4.

Takahashi I, Umeda T, Mashiko T, Chinda D, Oyama T, Sugawara K, et al. Effects of rugby sevens matches on human neutrophil-related non-specific immunity. Brit J Sport Med. 2007;41(1):13.

Takarada Y. Evaluation of muscle damage after a rugby match with special reference to tackle plays. Brit J Sport Med. 2003;37(5):416.

Smart DJ, Gill ND, Beaven CM, Cook CJ, Blazevich AJ. The relationship between changes in interstitial creatine kinase and game-related impacts in rugby union. Brit J Sport Med. 2008;42(3):198.

Cook CJ, Crewther BT. The effects of different pre-game motivational interventions on athlete free hormonal state and subsequent performance in professional rugby union matches. Physiol Behav. 2012;106(5):683–8.

Crewther BT, Lowe T, Weatherby RP, Gill N. Prior sprint cycling did not enhance training adaptation, but resting salivary hormones were related to workout power and strength. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009;105(6):919.

Crewther BT, Cook CJ, Gaviglio CM, Kilduff LP, Drawer S. Baseline Strength Can Influence the Ability of Salivary Free Testosterone to Predict Squat and Sprinting Performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26(1):261–8.

Bouaziz T, Makni E, Passelergue P, Tabka Z, Lac G, Moalla W, et al. Multifactorial monitoring of training load in elite rugby sevens players: cortisol/cortisone ratio as a valid tool of training load monitoring. Biol Sport. 2016;33(3):231–9.

McLellan CP, Lovell DI, Gass GC. Biochemical and Endocrine Responses to Impact and Collision During Elite Rugby League Match Play. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(6):1553–62.

McLellan CP, Lovell DI, Gass GC. Creatine Kinase and Endocrine Responses of Elite Players Pre, During, and Post Rugby League Match Play. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(11):2908–19.

mclellan2011-2.pdf. n.d.;

Crewther BT, Cook CJ, Lowe TE, Weatherby RP, Gill N. The Effects of Short-Cycle Sprints on Power, Strength, and Salivary Hormones in Elite Rugby Players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):32–9.

Cook CJ, Crewther BT. Changes in salivary testosterone concentrations and subsequent voluntary squat performance following the presentation of short video clips. Horm Behav. 2012;61(1):17–22.

Gaviglio CM, Crewther BT, Kilduff LP, Stokes KA, Cook CJ. Relationship Between Pregame Concentrations of Free Testosterone and Outcome in Rugby Union. Int J Sport Physiol. 2014;9(2):324–31.

Crewther B, Carruthers J, Kilduff L, Sanctuary C, Cook C. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Biol Sport. 2016;33(3):215–21.

Gabbett TJ. Quantifying the Physical Demands of Collision Sports. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(8):2319–22.

Herbst KL, Bhasin S. Testosterone action on skeletal muscle. Curr Opin Clin Nutr. 2004;7(3):271–7.

Storer TW, Woodhouse L, Magliano L, Singh AB, Dzekov C, Dzekov J, et al. Changes in Muscle Mass, Muscle Strength, and Power but Not Physical Function Are Related to Testosterone Dose in Healthy Older Men. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2008;56(11):1991–9.

Finkelstein JS, Lee H, Burnett-Bowie S-AM, Pallais JC, Yu EW, Borges LF, et al. Gonadal Steroids and Body Composition, Strength, and Sexual Function in Men. New Engl J Medicine. 2013;369(11):1011–22.

Mazur A. Biosocial Model of Status in Face-to-Face Primate Groups. Procedia - Soc Behav Sci. 2013;84:53–6.

Smart DJ, Hopkins WG, Gill ND. Differences and Changes in the Physical Characteristics of Professional and Amateur Rugby Union Players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(11):3033–44.

Passelergue P, Robert A, Lac G. Salivary Cortisol and Testosterone Variations during an Official and a Simulated Weight-Lifting Competition. Int J Sports Med. 1995;16(05):298–303.

Mitchell JA, Pumpa KL, Williams KJ, Pyne DB. Variable Changes in Body Composition, Strength and Lower-Body Power During an International Rugby Sevens Season. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(4):1127–36.

Schuster J, Howells D, Robineau J, Couderc A, Natera A, Lumley N, et al. Physical-Preparation Recommendations for Elite Rugby Sevens Performance. Int J Sport Physiol. 2018;13(3):255–68.

Fry AC, Schilling BK, Fleck SJ, Kraemer WJ. Relationships Between Competitive Wrestling Success and Neuroendocrine Responses. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(1):40–5.

Filaire E, Sagnol M, Ferrand C, Maso F, Lac G. Psychophysiological stress in judo athletes during competitions. J Sports Medicine Phys Fit. 2001;41(2):263–8.

Curl C, Delbridge L, Canny B, Wendt I. Testosterone modulates cardiomyocyte Ca2+ handling and contractile function. Physiol Res. 2009;58(2):293–7.

Bonifazi M, Ginanneschi F, Volpe R della, Rossi A. Effects of gonadal steroids on the input–output relationship of the corticospinal pathway in humans. Brain Res. 2004;1011(2):187–94.

Crewther BT, Potts N, Kilduff LP, Drawer S, Cook CJ. Can salivary testosterone and cortisol reactivity to a mid-week stress test discriminate a match outcome during international rugby union competition? J Sci Med Sport. 2018;21(3):312–6.

Stupnicki R, Obmiński Z, Klusiewicz A, Viru A. Pre-exercise serum cortisol concentration and responses to laboratory exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol O. 1995;71(5):439–43.

Sedliak M, Finni T, Cheng S, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K. Effect of Time‐of‐Day‐Specific Strength Training on Serum Hormone Concentrations and Isometric Strength in Men. Chronobiol Int. 2009;24(6):1159–77.

Brooks BP, Merry DE, Paulson HL, Lieberman AP, Kolson DL, Fischbeck KH. A Cell Culture Model for Androgen Effects in Motor Neurons. J Neurochem. 1998;70(3):1054–60.

Alén M, Pakarinen A, Häkkinen K, Komi P. Responses of Serum Androgenic-Anabolic and Catabolic Hormones to Prolonged Strength Training. Int J Sports Med. 1988;09(03):229–33.

KROTKIEWSKI M, KRAL JG, KARLSSON J. Effects of castration and testosterone substitution on body composition and muscle metabolism in rats. Acta Physiol Scand. 1980;109(3):233–7.

Peñailillo LE, Escanilla FA, Jury ER, Castro-Sepulveda MA, Deldicque L, Zbinden-Foncea HP. Differences in salivary hormones and perception of exertion in elite women and men volleyball players during tournament. J Sports Medicine Phys Fit. 2018;58(11).

Castro-Sepulveda M, Ramirez-Campillo R, Abad-Colil F, Monje C, Peñailillo L, Cancino J, et al. Basal Mild Dehydration Increase Salivary Cortisol After a Friendly Match in Young Elite Soccer Players. Front Physiol. 2018;9:1347.

Castro-Sepúlveda M, Astudillo S, Álvarez C, Zapata-Lamana R, Zbinden-Foncea H, Ramírez-Campillo R, et al. [PREVALENCE OF DEHYDRATION BEFORE TRAINING IN PROFESIONAL CHILEAN SOCCER PLAYERS]. Nutrición Hosp. 2015;32(1):308–11.

Elias M. Serum cortisol, testosterone, and testosterone‐binding globulin responses to competitive fighting in human males. Aggressive Behav. 1981;7(3):215–24.

Fry AC, Kraemer WJ. Resistance Exercise Overtraining and Overreaching. Sports Med. 1997;23(2):106–29.

Hayes L, Sculthorpe N, Cunniffe B, Grace F. Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Measurement in Sports Medicine: a Narrative Review and User?s Guide for Researchers and Practitioners. Int J Sports Med. 2016;37(13):1007–18.






Articulos de Revisión

Cómo citar

¿Los niveles de Testosterona y Cortisol influyen en el rendimiento en el rugby? Una mirada al rugby sevens. Revista Archivos SOCHMEDEP [Internet]. 2022 Apr. 30 [cited 2024 Jun. 17];67(1):37-53. Available from: https://revistasochmedep.cl/index.php/Revista/article/view/23

Artículos similares

1-10 de 16

También puede Iniciar una búsqueda de similitud avanzada para este artículo.