Evaluación funcional en futbolistas juveniles chilenos: análisis comparativo por posición

Autores/as

  • Gonzalo Fernández C. Médico, Staff Unidad de Medicina Deportiva Clínica Alemana, Santiago, Chile.
  • Rodrigo Guiloff K. Traumatólogo, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana–Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.
  • José Bravo H. Residente de Traumatología y Ortopedia, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana–Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
  • Rodrigo Domínguez G. Kinesiólogo, Jefe de Unidad de Reintegro Deportivo Clínica Alemana, Santiago, Chile.
  • David Figueroa P. Traumatólogo, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana–Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.
  • Rafael Calvo R. Traumatólogo, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana–Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.
  • Francisco Figueroa B. Traumatólogo, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana–Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.
  • Alex Vaisman B. Traumatólogo, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana–Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile.

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.59856/arch.soc.chil.med.deporte.v65i1.10

Palabras clave:

Functional Movement Screen test, Test de Illinois, Test de los 30 metros planos, Parámetros funcionales, Pro Agility, Saltos verticales

Resumen

Introducción: Los futbolistas presentan un desarrollo diferenciado en cuanto a parámetros funcionales según su posición en la cancha, sin embargo, no hay estudios al respecto en futbolistas chilenos.

Objetivo: Comparar parámetros funcionales en futbolistas juveniles chilenos según posición.

Método: Estudio transversal, analítico. Participación de 84 futbolistas juveniles chilenos. Se evaluó flexibilidad y estabilidad, agilidad, velocidad y potencia muscular, mediante batería de 6 tests específicos (Functional Movement Screen, Pro Agility, Illinois e Illinois con balón, velocidad a 30m y salto vertical). El análisis estadístico incluyó Kruskal-Wallis y ANOVA (p <0,05).

Resultados: Edad de la muestra 15,781,13 años. Los delanteros realizaron el Pro Agility en menos tiempo que porteros (p = 0,009), defensas (p = 0,047) y mediocampistas (p = 0,022). Los porteros realizaron ambos Illinois en un tiempo mayor que el resto (p = 0,001). En 30 metros planos los delanteros fueron más rápidos que porteros (p = 0,019) y defensas (p = 0,031). La potencia muscular estimada fue mayor en porteros respecto a mediocampistas (p = 0,01).

Discusión: Los delanteros son más ágiles según el Pro Agility que las demás posiciones y más veloces que los porteros y defensas. Los porteros presentaron significativamente menor agilidad en ambos test de Illinois que las otras posiciones, pero mayor potencia que los mediocampistas. La flexibilidad y estabilidad fue similar entre posiciones. Estos resultados pueden ser utilizados por entrenadores para asignar posiciones, selección de jugadores jóvenes y mejorar las habilidades más débiles de forma específica.

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11-05-2020

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1.
Evaluación funcional en futbolistas juveniles chilenos: análisis comparativo por posición. Revista Archivos SOCHMEDEP [Internet]. 2020 May 11 [cited 2024 Jun. 17];65(1):52-66. Available from: https://revistasochmedep.cl/index.php/Revista/article/view/10

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